- Girls outperform boys in reading in all countries and economies by the equivalent of one year of school.
- In most countries and economies, girls underperform boys in mathematics; and among the highest-achieving students, the gender gap in favour of boys is even wider.
- The gender gap in mathematics performance mirrors the gender gap in students’ drive, motivation and self-beliefs.
- Boys and girls tend to benefit equally when they are perseverant and motivated to learn, and have confidence in their abilities to learn mathematics. Consequently, the performance of both boys and girls suffers at the same rate when they lack motivation to learn and confidence in their own abilities.